Barbour County was established on December 18, 1832.
Barbour County was established on December 18, 1832, from former Creek Indian territory and a portion of Pike County. Its boundaries were altered in 1866 and 1868. The Election Riot of 1874 occurred near Comer.
In 1833, Louisville was chosen as the first county seat for Barbour County. The county seat was moved in 1834 after an eleven-member committee selected Clayton to be the seat of government because of its central geographic location. By the 1870s, Eufaula had surpassed Clayton in size, sparking debate concerning whether the county seat should be moved to the county’s commercial center or remain at its geographic center. A compromise was reached on February 12, 1879, with the approval of Act No. 106, establishing courts in both Eufaula and Clayton. Today, two courthouses remain operational in Barbour County.
As of the census of 2000, there were 29,038 people, 10,409 households, and 7,390 families residing in the county. The population density was 33 people per square mile (13/km²). There were 12,461 housing units at an average density of 14 per square mile (5/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 51.27% White, 46.32% Black or African American, 0.45% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.91% from other races, and 0.73% from two or more races. 1.65% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 670 people who spoke Spanish in their home. The only other language with over 100 speakers was French at 105.
In 2005 Barbour County had a population that was 49.5% non-Hispanic whites. 46.8% of the population was African-American. 0.3% of the population reported more than one race. Latinos were now 3.1% of the population. 0.4% were Native American and 0.3% were Asian. (Sources census quickfacts)
In 2000 There were 10,409 households out of which 33.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.90% were married couples living together, 19.10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.00% were non-families. 26.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.04.
In the county the population was spread out with 25.40% under the age of 18, 9.30% from 18 to 24, 29.60% from 25 to 44, 22.40% from 45 to 64, and 13.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 106.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.80 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $25,101, and the median income for a family was $31,877. Males had a median income of $28,441 versus $19,882 for females. The per capita income for the county was $13,316. About 21.60% of families and 26.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.10% of those under age 18 and 26.40% of those age 65 or over.